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Its other host plants include Actinodaphnae obovata Nees (Blume), A. anquistifolia (Blume) Nees, Cinnamomum glaucescans (Nees) Drury, C. glanduliferum (Wallich) Meisner, Litsea nitida (Roxburgh) Hooker f., all of which belong to Lauraceae family. During foraging, herbivorous insects perceive different information available in the natural environment, and a specialist might use spe-cific biophysical and chemical cues provided by a host plant. Funding agency: CSB, Bangalore. The mixed viscous diet material was cooked for 15–25 minutes under 10–15 lb pressure to reach a core temperature of 105–115° C. The diet was then stirred immediately to reduce its temperature to about 75–85° C and poured into the trays to reach room temperature before being placed in the refrigerator at 5–8° C. This diet can be preserved at 5–10° C for 20–25 days. E The lac is then sold as such or freed from the sticks and then sold. This is an open access paper. Otis The sensory codes underlying feeding behaviour, Multimodal Chemosensory Integration through the Maxillary Palp in, Olfactory capabili-ties of the gustatory chemoreceptors of the tobacco hornworm larvae, Pore structures in in-sect olfactory sensilla: a review of data and concepts, International Journal of Insect Morphology And Embryology. While Hazarika et al. The experiments consisted of a minimum of 10 choices, and the insects showing no response were discarded. Twenty five numbers dfls of Antheraea assamensis … A control was run in which phenylalanine was Dr. D.K. Hilderbrand Silkworms could help repair spinal cords Expression of diverse midgut serine proteinases in the sericigenous Lepidoptera Antheraea assamensis (Heifer) is influenced by choice of host plant species. added after the addition of trichloroacetic (TCA) acid. In the present investigation, it was observed that young larvae fed with mature leaves and vice versa had the lowest survivale rates, suggesting that feeding larvae with leaves of suitable maturity is important for higher survival. Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), the producer of golden silk, is a lepidopteran insect endemic to northeastern India. The relationship between the food habits of insects and the chemical components of host plants have been extensively studied (Verschaffelt 1910, Watanabe 1958, Thorsteinson 1960, Ito and Tanaka 1959, 1961, Cantelo and Jacobson 1979, Yoshida 1983, Haynes et al. H This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, providedthe original work is properly cited. Prior to experiments prophylactic measures of disinfestations were given to both outdoor plants and indoor devices. Temperature and sunshine hour had positive effects, whereas relative humidity and rainfall had negative effects on the aphid population build-up. In the present experiment, a mixture of myrcetin and 7, 2′, 4′ trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with βsitosterol exhibited the highest biting behavior, β-sitosterol is the active compound of the mulberry plant that induces biting behavior from B. mori. When it was about 80 percent or more, the response was denoted as highly +ve. Before the time of hatching, straw sticks containing the eggs of A. assamensis are tied to the tree trunk base. Almas Rivet Six females reared from a larva of A. assamensis on 14 May 2015 in Jorhat, Assam (specimen code: NBAIR/14515) were examined. Your comment will be reviewed and published at the journal's discretion. (Neog et al. The two plants food choice test (dual choice test) was carried out between a host plant, P. bombycina or L. polyantha and a non-host, L. grandifolia or Z. jujuba. F.) and “Soalu” (Litsea polyantha A. Juss). Gillard The Importance Of Olfactory Senses In Food Preference In Fifth Instar Larvae Of Antheraea As-Samensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) Was Examined By Subjecting Larvae With Only Antennae Or Maxillary Palpi After Microsurgery To Food And Odor Choice Tests. Preference based on mean percent consump-tion per minute was analyzed by one (p < 0.025) and two (p < 0.05) tailed Mann-Whitney tests. Larvae fed on diet 18, containing azaindole, experienced the longest larval period for both instars (8.6 days for the 1st and 13.6 days for the 2nd instar). Riffel After crushing into paste, the content was kept under methanol HCl for 48 hours (<) with intermittent shaking. JL Lederhouse et al. Percentage of larvae opting for odor choice in Y-tube olfactometer. Similar to ANT larvae, only 20% of NONE larvae opted for L. polyantha (Figure 3). The concentrated organic phase thus obtained was subjected to preparative TLC and compared with standard chemicals for identification. Nees and L. citrata Blume, and the chemical basis of feeding preference were investigated. Insects use various sensory systems to locate their hosts (Chapman 2003; Bullas-Appleton et al. Insects having un-successful operations were not considered further. The behavioral responses to plant extracts prepared from the host and non-host plants were assessed by using one all-glass Y-tube olfactometer (3 cm diameter and 15 cm long) (modified from Blackmer et al. Gabler Odor choice test. This was further acidified with diluted HCl and extracted with CH2Cl2. Attraction and biting response of the muga silkworm towards different chemicals. This preference may vary widely among different host plants of the same family or even among different varieties of the same species (Lederhouse et al. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. . However, the percentage of ANT and MAX larvae opting for L. polyantha was significant-ly reduced compared to that of the control. On the other hand, caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde, dodecyl aldehyde, chemicals that produced positive responses on the attraction test, also produced biting behavior. Byers Ma In the first stages of selection, smell and sight are the most important senses because they normally operate at long distances. Diagram showing (a) Days required (b) weight in grams and (c) survival percent of first and second instar larvae of muga silkworm; 21=control outdoor rearing. Attraction and feeding tests with detached leaves and artificial diet with different chemical stimulants revealed that a mixture of the flavonoids, myrcetin, and 7, 2', 4' trimethoxy dihydroxy flavone with sterol compound β-sitosterol elicited the most biting behavior by A. assamensis larvae. All analysis was done by SPSS 17. Phytophagous insects show varying degrees of association with host plants, a particular plant species or group of plants on which they feed (food plant range) (Unni et al. From time immemorial, many ethnic and tribal groups have produced muga silk. Significant variation in the number of 5th instar larvae harvested, cocoon weight, shell weight and pupal weight was observed when the silkworms were reared on leaves treated with the selected chemicals. Silkworm (Antheraea assamensis Helfer) larvae. Williams Larvae were given a choice between host, P. bombycina, and non-host, L. grandifolia. Mean percent consumption of P. bombycina per mi-nute by ANT and MAX larvae was reduced in comparison to that of UNI larvae (Figure 2B–D). Dicke This will count as one of your downloads. The percent of larvae choosing the non-host was 40, and the percent choosing water was 60 (p < 0.05) (Figure 3). ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae opted for only water, and in each case none of the lar-vae opted for the non-host (p < 0.001). Zhu Description: A dupatta (woman's shawl) composed of reeled muga silk (Antheraea assamensis)) weft and reeled tropical tasar silk (Antheraea paphia = A. mylitta) warp. When the choice was given between the odor of a host plant versus water in the case of P. bombycina, 80% of ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae opted for the odor of P. bomby-cina (p < 0.01) and 80% of NONE larvae opted for water (p < 0.05). . Marion-Poll 1991; Rowel and Simpson 1992; Rohrbacher 1994). When larvae were given a choice between P. bombycina and water, 80% of the UNI larvae and 70% of the MAX and ANT larvae opted for P. bombycina. CE Only freshly prepared filtrate was used in each bioassay. JN There are very few studies on the feeding behavior of A. assamensis with respect to chemical stimuli of its host plants. Caro-line Rearing of Antheraea assamensis Heifer (Muga) on Persea bombycina King (Som) and Litsea polyantha Blume (Soalu), the two primary host plants, is prerogative of Assam for commercial production of golden yellow Muga silk. In the present investigation, a study of the nutritional value of the leaves of each host plant (i.e., soluble protein, total phenol and PAL activity) revealed substantial variation. PJ One hundred grams of fresh P. bombycina leaves were crushed in the presence of methanol HCl. 2000; Del Campo and Miles 2003) and preferences for one specific compound present in all members of one plant family leading to oligophagy (Del Campo et al. ML C Lack of knowledge of its genetics and host plants is a major bottleneck. On the other hand, medium leaves supported the growth of the larvae at a moderate level and resulted in an overall higher survival percent than tender or mature leaves (Figure 2). K Half pieces of Whatman No. G The reaction mixture contained 0.5 mL borate buffer (pH 8.7), 0.2 mL enzyme solution, 1 mL 0.1M L-phenylalanine and 1.3 mL water. Comparative abundance of the phenolic compounds in the leaves of different age group of Persea bombycina. This silk moth is semi-domesticated owing to the fact that only cocooning and grainage operations are conducted indoor and, reared on Del Campo This result confirmed that the larvae required either the antenna or the maxillary palp for mediating normal food preference. Mus-tapatra Induction of feed-ing preference by diet was earlier reported in M. sexta (De Boer 1992). (2011) showed a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde, and dodec-ylaldehyde to be attractive for biting behavior of A. assamensis larvae. F The filament length of the cocoon is 500–800 m and the denier is approximately 5.5 (Jolly, et al., 1979). . Mitchell Caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde, dodecyl aldehyde also showed a highly positive response, but a mixture of all three yielded the highest attraction response (99%). The chemicals pre-sent in plants may also modulate functional significance of the chemosensory organs in particular and food choice behavior of the in-sect as a whole (Glendinning et al. Schaafsma Larvae of A. assamensis feed on a very nar-row range of host plants. . From the Methanolic extracts of P. bombycina leaves, six phenolic compounds were isolated through thin layer chromatography and were identified by comparing them to their standard counterparts. 1981, Miller and Strickler 1984, Harris and Rose 1990, Renwick 1990, Rewick and Chew 1994, Huang and Renwick 1995, Landolt and Molina 1996, Carter and Feeny 1999, Carter et al. Larvae were given a choice between Z. jujuba and water. Host plant selection behavior or feeding preferences are largely mediated by the presence and distribution of secondary metabolites in plants (Frankael, 1959, Lin et al., 1998). Morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of the epipharyngeal sensilla of the silkworm. Hamamura et al. For example, camphor acts as a repellent to Harmonia axyridis, the multicolored ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), but is an attractant for Cicloneda sanguinea and Eriopis connexa. Larvae retaining only antennae were designated as ANT larvae, larvae retaining only maxillary palpi as MAX larvae, larvae retaining all chemosensory organs (both olfac-tory and gustatory) as ALL, the larvae retaining none of the chemosensory organs (both olfactory and gustatory) as NONE, and larvae retaining all organs (both olfactory and gustatory) unilaterally as UNI. Zavod 40% of NONE larvae opted for P. bombycina, while 60% opted for L. grandifolia. LM Maximum survival and cocoon crop production in B. mori was achieved by feeding tender leaves to young larvae (1st -2nd instars), medium leaves to 3rd and 4th instars, and mature leaves to 5th instar larvae (Veda et al. TA Each adaptor was connected to the Ro-tameter (Sigma-Aldrich, www.sigmaaldrich.com) in order to maintain a constant air-flow. Nelson TCJ At the end of completion of five larval instars, the larvae crawl down, are collected, and allowed to spin cocoons inside a rearing house. Muga silkworm host plant. The larval forms of Antheraea assamensis thrives well on the aromatic leaves of the host plants “Som” (Machilus bombycina King ex Hook. The larva feed on Cinnamomum, Laurus, Litsea, Carpinus, Persea, Magnolia, Michelia, Quercus, Sarcostemma and Symplocos. The mean percent consumption per minute was higher in UNI and ALL larvae in the case of consumption of host plant against the con-sumption of water (p < 0.05). MF Bioassay was done through a food choice test carried out in two ways. Composition of the semi-synthetic diet used for attraction and biting behavior experiments. JH In this work, we re-port the role of the antenna and maxillary palp in food selection by A. assamensis larvae based on food and odor choice tests. It is a polyphagous insect feeding on a wide range of plants. The food plants have wide distribution throughout the North-eastern India and in some parts of Northern India. Nutritional superiority of young and medium leaves with respect to soluble protein, total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity was observed in the leaves of P. bombycina compared to other host plants. plants was recorded after 60 minutes and this number is expressed as settling percent. Tender leaves of all the four host plants were morphologically varying in size, pale green, folded, thin, small in size. Contact, Password Requirements: Minimum 8 characters, must include as least one uppercase, one lowercase letter, and one number or permitted symbol, Access Institutional Sign In via Shibboleth or OpenAthens, Insect behavior in response to leaves of different host plants, Insect behavior in response to developmentally different leaves of different host plants, Estimation of total phenol and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, Biological evaluation of leaf extracts and chemicals for attraction and biting behavior tests, Experiment on feeding with semi-synthetic diet, Rearing performance of muga silkworm fed with leaves treated with selected chemicals, Insect behavior in response to developmentally different leaves of the host plants, Biological evaluation of chemicals for attraction and biting behavior tests. JAA Although the emerging larvae have no choice but to feed on the plant/tree on which its mother had laid eggs, as otherwise the chances of its sur-vival are very limited, olfactory organs might also play a strong role in the insect’s food-source-directed movement. Antheraea assamensis, known as the muga silkworm as a larva and Assam silk moth as an adult, is a moth of the family Saturniidae.The species was first described by T. W. Helfer in 1837. Only 20% ANT and NONE larvae opted for L. polyantha in the choice test between L. polyantha and water. De Boer In their study on the Lauraceae specialist insects Papilio troilus and P. palamedes, Lederhouse et al. For the 2nd instar larvae, molting required the least number of days (8.0 days) for larvae on diets 19 and 20. Since outdoor rearing of wild silkworms predisposes the larvae to the vagaries of climatic conditions and makes them more vulnerable not only to pests and diseases, but also to the effects of temperature, photoperiodism, precipitation, etc., developing an artificial diet on which to raise A. assamensis indoors is of great value. While linalyl acetate alone attracted larvae towards the leaves of the host plants, a mixture of caryophyllene, decyl aldehyde and dodecyl aldehyde was found to both attract them to the host leaves and cause biting behavior. When larvae showed attraction to or biting behavior towards a particular treatment, their response was considered as positive (+ve), the reverse as negative response (-ve). It is a well-known fact that, for an insect with several host plants, a single plant species may not provide the most beneficial conditions during all parts of the life cycle (Reavey and Lawton 1991, Scheirs et al. Muga (Antheraea assamensis) silkworm is endemic to Assam and adjoining-area in North-Eastern India such as Meghalaya because of its unique climatic conditions which fulfil its ecological requirements in its natural adobe. 2. Thank you for submitting a comment on this article. Host plant of silkworms plays a major role in the quality as well as the quantity of silk produced. To access this item, please sign in to your personal account. A. assamensis is polyphagous, and out of about 15 plant species reported to be host plants, two species, Persea bombycina King ex. ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae preferred only water over Z. jujuba (p < 0.001), and mean percent consumption was highly significant (p < 0.025). Understanding basic physiology of Antheraea assamensis (Muga Silkworm) ... different host plant, etc.) P. bombycina vs. L. grandifolia. You have requested a machine translation of selected content from our databases. Similar to L. grandifolia, in the food choice test for the non-host, Z. jujuba, the antennae and maxillary palp were individually compe-tent in the rejection of the non-host, and in their absence the NONE larvae could not dif-ferentiate the non-host from the host and wa-ter. Miles The Results Indicate The Ne-Cessity Of Functional Integration Of A Combination Of Olfactory And Gustatory Sensilla Present In Different Peripheral Organs In Food Acceptance By A. Assamensis Larvae. B N RNA interference mediated serine protease gene (Spbtry1) knockdown affects growth and mortality in the soybean pod borer (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) Muga silkworms are mostly wild unlike the mulberry silkworm, which is completely domesticated. JA Thus, in wild habitat, host plant chemicals play key roles in orientation and food selection through the participation of the antenna and maxillary palp in A. assamensis. 1) of filter paper. D Larvae were given a choice between L. grandifolia and water. Thorsteinson (1960) confirmed that the mustard oil glycoside, a typical component of cruciferous plants, is responsible for the feeding habits of the larvae of Euproctis similes, a species that feeds only on the leaves of the plants belonging to the family Crucifereae. assamensis , the same fifth instar larvae retaining only labrum‐epipharynx or galeal sensilla were subjected to food choice tests. Choudhury et al. 1) were placed on the dish. 1995; Agarwal 1998; Walling 2000; Schoonhoven et al. The mean percent consumption per minute with respect to both the choices was significant (p < 0.05) (Figure 3). 1979, McFarlane and Distler 1982, Simmonds 2001, Green et al. L. grandifolia vs. water. Rowel (1951). Christensen D. S. Bora, B. Deka, A. Sen, Host Plant Selection By Larvae Of The Muga Silk Moth, Anthe-Raea Assamensis, And The Role Of The Antenna And Maxillary Palp, Journal of Insect Science, Volume 13, Issue 1, 2013, 52, https://doi.org/10.1673/031.013.5201. . Blackmer Hazarika (1994) categorized Machilus (=Persea) bombycina idiotypes into most preferred, moderately preferred and least preferred types and suggested that dodecanal and caryophyllene, present dominantly in the most preferred idiotypes, may play the role of olfactory attractants, enhancing the feeding rate of muga silkworms on these plants. Source of these cocoons are domesticated farm stocks that crash frequently and/or wild insect populations that provide new cultures. P. bombycina or L. polyantha vs. water. Muga silk is produced by the silkworm Antheraea assamensis Helfer, a polyphagous insect feeding on a wide range of plants viz., so m (Persea bombycina) and soalu (Litsea monopetala) being the primary host plants, and dighloti (Litsea … Rearing was conducted till spinning. Deficiency of gustatory sen-sitivity to some deterrent compounds in polyphagous mutant strains of the silkworm, Potato leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) varietal prefer-ences in edible beans in relation to visual and olfactory cue, Contact chemoreception in feeding by phytophagous insects. P. bombycina, L. polyantha, L. salicifolia and L. citrata twigs with five to six tender, medium and mature leaves, taken immediately after detachment from their branches, were placed one foot away from the centre. Loughrin The filter papers were soaked with deionized water, which was used to keep the humidity high in each dish. In plant-eating insects where larvae develop on a single host, the ovipositional behavior of adult females determines the larval habitat (Gothard et al. Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae), Litsea polyantha Jussieu.L. They are polyphagous, but thrive primarily on two host plants, Persea bombycina Kostermans (Laurales: Lauraceae) and Litseapolyantha Juss. . Som (Persea bombycina Kost. ALL, UNI, ANT, and MAX larvae opted for P. bombycina, and the percent of larvae opting for P. bombycina was 100 in each case (p < 0.001) (Figure 2). When an insect is choosing a host-plant, it may use a variety of senses, including smell, sight, touch and taste (Bernays and Chapman 1994). The au-thors are also grateful to the three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments for im-proving the quality of the work. Two others, Litsea salicifolia Roxburgh ex. The mean percent consumption per minute was significantly lower in ANT and MAX in comparison to that of UNI larvae (Figure 2C, D). Differentiation of roles of chemosensory organs in food dis-crimination among host and non-host plants by larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Foodplant se-lection and induction of feeding preference among host and non-host plants in larvae of the tobacco hornworm, Food plant se-lection and induction of feeding preference among host and nonhost plants in larvae of tobacco hornworm, Feeding stimulatory and inhibitory chemicals from an acceptable nonhost plant for. 2005). (1998) with modifications as described below. In addition to the inges-tive tests, when the ablated larvae were subjected to odor choice test using the Y-tube olfactometer, all larvae except the NONE lar-vae were attracted to only the host plant odor in dual plant choice tests. The number of larvae settled on the leaves of the different As all the chemosensory organs are bilaterally repre-sented, ablation of all chemosensory organs of one side should nullify the probable effect of surgery on food preference. Reisenman Hook (Laurales: Lauraceae) , Litsea polhantha Jussieu , L. salicifolia Roxburgh ex. Tests were repeated with a minimum of 10 larvae. 1969, Hamamura et al. Medium leaves were mostly preferred as revealed by the feeding behavior and survival rate of the larvae during different instars. 2005) are perceived by ol-factory organs. Bullas-Appleton 2007), and the degree of acceptability is probably based on the abil-ity of the plants to elicit qualitatively different perceptions because of high chemosensory selectivity of output neurons (Dethier and Crnjar 1982; Reisenman et al. 1991, Lopez et al. The leaf discs were fitted to the distal end of bamboo sticks, whose proximal ends were fixed on hard cardboard kept at 1 cm above the bottom of the container. TJ C Diet numbers 4, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 16, and 17 supported the growth of more than 20% of the larvae up to 2nd instar (Figure 3). The NONE larvae did not differentiate between host and non-host, and 40% of the larvae approached the host while 60% ap-proached the non-host (p < 0.05) (Figure 2E). A: Scheme of Y-tube olfactometer. Unni Moreover, chemical stimulants acting at a certain concentration at one receptor of the insect may influence acceptance of the host, while a different concentration of the chemical may cause the insect's central neuron to reject it (Ananthakrishnan, 1991). Plant considered as control Glendinning 2000; Chapman 2003). High quality figures are available online. The ends of the two arms of the Y-tube were connected to two adaptors made of Z-glass, and in each adaptor was placed a piece of Whatman filter paper (1 cm2). During different instars the least number of days ( 8.0 days ) for on! Under different treatments in A. assamensis feed on different leaf types that were reared up spinning! Were taken and wax coated this content is available for download via your institution 's subscription in! Asaoka 2000 ; Schoonhoven and Loon 2002 ) choices, and choice were... Occurs throughout the year and makes maximum foliar damages during rainy seasons 1992 ; Rohrbacher ). Rotameter and a Neutral medium ( water ) enzyme source with deionized water, which is completely domesticated two... Are regarded as its primary host plant that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access this... Kataky JCS at long distances response was denoted as highly +ve own key ( and! A. assamensis with respect to chemical stimuli of its genetics and host plants was determined by the larvae put! Used were two hosts, lifetime growth rates of both specialist insects were much than! Figure 3 ) filter papers were soaked with deionized water, and the denier is approximately 5.5 ( Jolly et. The response was denoted as highly +ve insect populations that provide new cultures a dissecting bin-ocular microscope ( Olympus www.olympus.co.uk. Been shown to be inhibited by thoracic input ( Griss et al minimum 10! Consumption of the muga silk is produced by plants can elicit different behaviors in different insect may. Arrangement for food choice tests, sign in to your BioOne Complete.! Provided by odorant molecules not differentiate the non-host from water, and the chemical basis the! Jujuba and water disk yellow or creamy white in color subjected to food choice tests Lauraceae insects. Acid spectrophotometrically larvae required either the Antenna and maxillary palp Abstract attractive for biting behavior of research! Key WORDS: muga, som, Soalu, rearing, grainage your paper!... Of Persea bombycina King ex NONE was absolutely necessary for the NONE larvae, lar-vae... Same age group of Persea bombycina Kostermans ( Laurales: Lauraceae ), Litsea, Carpinus, bombycina... None of the test was recorded for diet 18 ( 0.020 G ) and semi-domesticated in.... % food consumption in T50 time was expressed in terms of percent consumption between numbers. Few studies on the aphid population build-up the research work was supported by the department of Science Technology! Materials in the presence of methanol HCl for 48 hours ( < ) with intermittent shaking have! Of Lauraceae family for its confinement to northeastern India only after the addition of trichloroacetic ( ). A central pattern generator for chewing located in the present investigation consist the! Restricted diet breadth is due to the specific Role of the epipharyngeal sensilla the! Three replicates of the test behaved similarly to NONE larvae did not produce significant! Survivability of larvae choosing different plants through odor perception when the larvae of A. assamensis is (... Dandelion leaves... Protection from UV Radiation in the case of non-hosts (

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